What is Elder Abuse and Neglect?
Elder Abuse and Neglect occurs within a relationship of trust. The victim and the abuser are people who know each other well. Statistics from services in New Zealand show that the majority of abusers are members of the kaumatua/older person’s family/whanau (partners, sons, daughters, in laws, siblings, grandchildren). Other abusers include people employed in positions of trust – residential facility staff or paid carers.
Elder Abuse occurs when a person aged 65 or more experiences harmful physical, psychological, sexual, material/financial or social effects caused by the behaviour of another person with whom they have a relationship implying trust.Elder Neglect
Elder Neglect occurs when a person aged 65 or more experiences harmful physical, psychological, sexual, material/financial or social effects caused by the behaviour of another person with whom they have a relationship implying trust.
Types of Abuse and Neglect
Several types of abuse can be present at the same time:
- PHYSICAL – Infliction of physical pain, injury or force - eg: being hit, slapped, tied in a chair
- PSYCHOLOGICAL / EMOTIONAL – Behaviour including verbal abuse which causes mental anguish, stress and fear - eg: called names, blackmailed, 'mind games'
- SEXUAL – Sexually abusive and exploitative behaviours involving threats, force or the inability to give consent
- MATERIAL / FINANCIAL – Illegal or improper exploitation and/or use of funds or other resources - eg: having money or possessions taken off you
Neglect occurs as a result of another person failing to meet the physical and emotional needs of an older person/kaumatua.
- ACTIVE NEGLECT is conscious and intentional deprivation.
- PASSIVE NEGLECT is the result of the carer's inadequate knowledge, infirmity or lack of trust in prescribed services.
Please note: SELF NEGLECT is not dealt with here as it is not considered to be a form of elder abuse and neglect as defined above. However, it is necessary to assess whether a situation is one of neglect by others, self-neglect, or a combination of these.
Abuse and Neglect for Maori
Maori recognise the types of elder abuse and neglect defined here but respond to this in a way which considers the context of the four cornerstones of health – Taha Wairua (Spiritual), Taha Whanau (Family), Taha Hinengaro (Mental), Taha Tinana (Physical). In this context, definitions of abuse and neglect may also include the lack of culturally appropriate services, preventing contact with Whanau and non-practice of traditional ways.
In responding to elder abuse and neglect Maori promote a holistic approach involving whanau, traditional cultural values including decision making processes, and the four cornerstones of health to restore manaakitanga.
Abuse and Neglect for Pacific Islands People and for People From Other Cultures
As there are many different groups of Pacific Islands people resident in New Zealand, all with their own language, social structures and cultural practices, it is not possible to generalise a ‘Pacific Islands’ approach to elder abuse and neglect.
While it is likely that Pacific Islands people and people from other cultures will recognise the types of abuse and neglect defined here, it is also likely that abuse and neglect will encompass other behaviours which are considered by that cultural group as harmful to their older people. One should not assume, however, that all people will immediately recognise or acknowledge that elder abuse or neglect occurs. Education and public awareness raising which has occurred in NZ European and in many Maori communities may not have reached other cultural groups.
When working with older people from another culture, it is essential that advice and assistance is sought from that culture. Wherever possible, it is preferable that services be provided by people from the same culture as the older person. Be mindful that people from other cultures are likely to have ways of addressing elder abuse and neglect which are consistent with their own culture.
Advice and Help - Where to Go
If you are worried about your situation, an older person or relative, contact the nearest Elder Abuse and Neglect Service to talk about the situation or suspected case of abuse and/or neglect. You may also contact the Service for general enquires on the issue, including the availability education and training sessions in your area. Click here for the Age Concern Council in your area and to find out more about Elder Abuse and Neglect and the Prevention Services in New Zealand through the Age Concern New Zealand website.
World Elder Abuse Awareness Day
"My World....Your World.....Our World - Free of Elder Abuse"
For more information click go to the INPEA World Elder Abuse site core message and World Health Organisation. View Age Concern New Zealand Factsheets on Elder Abuse.
Elder Abuse and Neglect - exploration of risk and protective factors
In 2008 the Families Commission released a new study on "Elder Abuse and Neglect - the exploration of risk and protective factors". To view the report as a PDF file click here.
Age Concern New Zealand
Age Concern New Zealand has built up the most comprehensive picture of elder abuse and neglect in New Zealand with this report series. The reports analyse referrals to Age Concern elder abuse and neglect services, provide definitions of elder abuse and neglect and present case studies of various types of abuse.
Enduring Powers of Attorney - Age Concern New Zealand has also supported recent changes to the law dealing with Enduring Powers of Attorney.
Elder Abuse and Neglect does occur in New Zealand. Age Concern New Zealand and a number of the Age Concern Councils have been helping people in these situations for a number of years. They can be contacted either through the Age Concern New Zealand website or your local Age Concern centre.
Family Violence Intervention Guidelines: Elder Abuse and Neglect
The "Family Violence Intervention Guidelines: Elder Abuse and Neglect" present a six-step model for health care providers to use when identifying and responding to elder abuse. The guidelines are intended to be used by health care professionals to:
- assist them to identify elder abuse and neglect
- support and empower those experiencing elder abuse or neglect
- undertake preliminary risk assessment and safety planning
- determine appropriate referral options for co-ordinated intervention and follow-up.
The guidelines are a practical tool to help providers make safe and effective interventions that will assist those experiencing elder abuse or neglect. They have been written as a generic guideline, setting out principles of intervention that will apply to a variety of health professionals and a number of settings.
More information on the Guidelines is available on the Ministry of Health website, including a PDF copy you can download (2.5 MB).
Age Concern New Zealand has produced a video to go accompany the Guidelines called It's All About Respect.
Other Reports of Interest
Advocacy - an effective tool in the prevention of Elder Abuse
This paper was produced by Jennie Michel, (Elder Abuse Neglect Coordinator, Age Concern North Shore), for the NZCB Conference.
Other Websites of Interest
Below are a few links to other websites detailing a variety of information about 'Elder Abuse' and a brief synopsis of each site. Click on the links provided.
Action on Elder Abuse
Action on Elder Abuse (AEA) works to protect, and prevent the abuse of, vulnerable older adults. They were the first charity to address these problems and are the only charity in the UK and in Ireland working exclusively on the issue today. Their website contains a lot of information on what is happening in the UK regarding Elder Abuse, and the studies and campaigns that Action on Elder Abuse is currently engaged in.
The Toronto Declaration on the Prevention of Elder Abuse
Abuse of older people has only recently been recognised as a global problem. INPEA 's advocacy work and the emphasis given to elder abuse prevention by the World Health Organization have contributed significantly to raising awareness worldwide. Academic institutions, around the world, have also substantially contributed to enhancing understanding and raising awareness and have developed methodological tools to study the problem. However, much is still to be done. Twenty or thirty years ago, societies throughout the world denied the existence of violence against women and child abuse. Then, through research, came the evidence.
As a result the civil society exercised the appropriate pressure for action from governments. The parallel with elder abuse is clear.
This declaration is a Call for Action aimed at the Prevention of Elder Abuse.
American Psychological Association
Older people today are more visible, more active, and more independent than ever before. They are living longer and in better health. But as the population of older Americans grows, so does the hidden problem of elder abuse, exploitation, and neglect. This website details case studies, signs and symptoms and where to go to for help (in America). The site contains some very interesting and useful information.
University of Illinois
This website looks at the many types of abuse, and states that there are also numerous signs or symptoms that abuse may be taking place. The signs do not always indicate an abusive situation, but can be important clues to possible abuse or neglect. This extension paper from the University of Illinois uses easy to understand language and talks about the Elder Abuse Act that came into force in 1988.
Colorado Gerontological Society
As with other professionals who work with senior citizens, lawyers have observed a shocking increase in the incidents of abuse, neglect and financial exploitation of the elderly. This page looks at a number of issues that may be of interest.
Elder Mistreatment: Abuse, Neglect, and Exploitation in an Aging America
The National Academy Press (NAP) has provided the Internet community access to a prepublication copy of the book Elder Mistreatment: Abuse, Neglect, and Exploitation in an Aging America. Recent research has shown that between one and two million Americans age 65 or older have been abused and mistreated by someone (either a relative or caregiver) responsible for their care and/or protection. Although a frequent occurrence, little research has been conducted to examine the causes and effective means of preventing mistreatment of the elderly. By highlighting some of its causes and consequences, this report intends to bring forth a better understanding of the nature and scope of elderly mistreatment in the hopes that the information will prompt "the development of informed policies and programs" to help combat this problem. This document is viewable in HTML format and consists of nine chapters and four appendixes.
International Federation on Ageing
The International Federation on Ageing (IFA) is an international non-governmental organisation based in Canada with a membership base of NGOs, the corporate sector, academia, government, and individuals.
Their aim is 'generating positive change for older people throughout the world by stimulating, collecting, analysing, and disseminating information on rights, policies, and practices that improve the quality of life of people as they age.'